WHAT IS RFID SYSTEM? Easy to understand

This is the beginners guide to the RFID system. This works best for those for which this RIFD system is new and want to learn about it. How it works? Its different types and about the necessary equipment and tags.

What is RIFD?

How it works?

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is the non-contact and wireless use of The radio frequency for the transfer of data. When you Tag items with RFID a unique id is given to these items which allow the identification of them. You can read lines without read lines and its boundary is extended up to 20 mm.

Basically these were first used in the world war 2 for the identification of Aeroplanes. After this technology continue to increase and becomes more cost effective.

Types of RFID

There are three main types of RFID:

  1. Low frequency
  2. High frequency
  3. Ultra-high frequency

Low frequency

-General Frequency range: 30-300 KHz

-Primary frequency range: 124-134 KHZ

-Read range

-Contact-10 cm

-Average Cost per tag

$0.75-$5.00

Applications

Access control, Animal tracking, Car key-fob, Applications with liquid volumes and metals.

Advantages

It works very good with metal and liquids I.e its global standards.

Cons

  1. High cost of production
  2. Low transmission rate of data
  3. Low memory quality
  4. Short reed range

High Frequency

1.Primary Frequency Range: 13.56 MHz

2Read Range: Near Contact – 30 Centimeters

3Average Cost Per Tag: $0.20 – $10.00

4.Applications: DVD Kiosks, Library Books, Personal ID Cards, Poker/Gaming Chips, NFC Applications

5.Pros: NFC Global Protocols, Larger Memory Options, Global Standards

6.Cons: Short Read Range, Low Data Transmission Rate

Ultra-High Frequency

General Frequency Range: 300 – 3000 MHz

Primary Frequency Ranges: 433 MHz, 860 – 960 MHz

We have further two types of RFID in the ultra-high frequency range:

  1. Active RFID
  2. Passive RFID

Active RFID

1.Primary Frequency Range: 433 MHz, (Can use 2.45 GHz – under the Extremely High Frequency Range)

2.Read Range: 30 – 100+ Meters

3.Average Cost Per Tag: $25.00 – $50.00

4.Applications: Vehicle Tracking, Auto Manufacturing, Mining, Construction, Asset Tracking

5.Pros: Very Long Read Range, Lower Infrastructure Cost (vs. Passive RFID), Large Memory Capacity, High Data Transmission Rates

6.Cons: High Per Tag Cost, Shipping Restrictions (due to batteries), Complex Software may be Required, High Interference from Metal and Liquids; Few Global Standards

Passive RFID

1. Primary Frequency Ranges: 860 – 960 MHz

2. Read Range: Near Contact – 25 Meters

3. Average Cost Per Tag: $0.09 – $20.00

4. Applications: Supply Chain Tracking, Manufacturing, Pharmaceuticals, Electronic Tolling, Inventory Tracking, Race Timing, Asset Tracking

5. Pros: Long Read Range, Low Cost Per Tag, Wide Variety of Tag Sizes and Shapes, Global Standards, High Data Transmission Rates

6. Cons: High Equipment Costs, Moderate Memory Capacity, High Interference from Metal and Liquids

Primary Subsets of Passive RFID

UHF passive RFID standard range is 860-960 MHz. It is further divided into 2 subsets : 865-868 MHz and 902-928 MHz.

Primary Subsets of Passive RFID

European telecommunications standards institute (ETSI) is the main body in Europe that set standards for the communication through different channels. RFID equipment s and tags are not allowed to communicate at smaller frequency rate but only at subsets of larger range from 860-960 MHz.

As ETSI sets standards for only Europe. But when we purchase or donate items from outside Europe.

902 – 928 MHz – FCC

The federal communications commission (FCC) is known as the governing body In the States of America for setting and upholding standards via multiple channels including radio waves. FCC regulations say that RFID equipment’s and tags only operate in the frequency of 902-928 MHz. Other types of communication is ranged between 860-960 MHz.

Tags which are FCC verified or are at the north-American area can be used throughout the North-American region.

Other

ETSI and FCC are the first ever major standards to be approved. Many countries adopted one or both or created a new one which comes under the sub-range of one of them.

Argentina chose the range of 902-928 MHz. Country of Armenia has its own range of 867 frequency.

Regional regulations are regulated by FCC or ETSI, there are also other specifies which regulate the amount of radiated power. Every country has a different range and strict for its range. Licence is required to use the FCC.

Every region has its own frequency range. To know more click here.

Example applications

There are endless applications of RFID. It extends from inventory chains tracking to the supply chains. It can become more specialized depending on the activity and industry. Rental item tracking, It asset tracking and track textile items.

It identifies items very quickly. Following are some of the applications of RFID running successfully:

  1. Race Timing
  2. Supply Chain Management
  3. Pharmaceutical Tracking
  4. Inventory TrackingIT Asset Tracking
  5. Laundry & Textile Tracking
  6. File Tracking
  7. Returnable Transit Item (RTI) Tracking
  8. Event & Attendee Tracking
  9. Access Control
  10. Vehicle Tracking
  11. Tolling
  12. Hospital Infant Tracking
  13. Animal Tracking
  14. Tool Tracking
  15. Jewelry Tracking
  16. Retail Inventory Tracking
  17. Pipe and Spool Tracking
  18. Logistics Tracking (Materials Management)
  19. DVD Kiosks
  20. Library Materials Tracking
  21. Marketing Campaigns
  22. Real-Time Location Systems

Important facts

Return on investment (ROI)

When you are going to buy or invest in a new system two main points should be considered. First is when you are going to have the profit. Secondly what is the labour and fixed costs. Altogether the advantages and other points.

Application and cost feasibility should be checked before RFID implementation system.

Application Feasibility

It refers to the whole process of determining the use or application with RFID system. RFID also has its limitations. Reed range limitations, asset material composition and environmental constraints tells how a RFID is applicable to the different aspects. Feasibility report and project is the application feasibility report. RFID is the right fitting of the application.

Cost feasibility

For monetary prospective cost feasibility is the point. It just not include the current numbers but the investment cost with the returning amount of money. These systems can be expensive. Initial spun out cost is required for testing out new materials and equipment. Deployment cost begins after testing. After a proper setup one can see a return on investment.

Fixed Vs recurring costs

Recurring cost

Recurring cost is very important if you want to get a clear picture of the yearly expenses and the overhead costs.

Fixed costs

One time cost of getting started is known as the fixed costs. Antennas,readers and cables is broadly termed in the fixed cost and all the hardware. It doesn’t mean that cost is for one time. Basically its not a one-time application cost. If you want to set your system afterwards initial cost still counts. RFID tags are one time tags which can be used again in the system. These are assigned and redistributed to the employees.

Recurring costs

These are items which are only used once and discarded during the application or process. RFID label or inlay is a common type item used in the recurring costs. As these tags are low cost these can be used for lifetime. In case of RFID printer then the printer ribbon is known as the recurring cost. If a factored licence is renewed through a software or as a SaaS (Software as a service) which is considered a recurring fact.

Environmental factors

The RFID systems are susceptible to the certain environmental factors and materials that cause well diminished ranges and affect the overall accuracy. For interference of RFID applications metals and liquids are most common sources. But for the equipment and planning proper RFID tags are needed.

RFID becomes more common with the liquid filled or metallic items. Many new items are released for reducing this problem. New techniques are developed for the mitigation of these item effects. Tag placement and spacer are working with these items.

What is this system?

Following are the four components of every RFID system:

  1. Tags

2. Antennas

3. Cables

4. Readers

Simple system is of a hand-held RFID reader. In a complex system multi-port readers are used. GPIO boxes, cables, multiple antennas and a complete setup of software is required.

RFID tags

What is an RFID tags?

RFID tag is a very simple one and is comprised of two parts:

Antenna for receiving and transmitting signals.

RFID chip which is used to store tag’s ID and other information. RFID tags are placed on the items in order to track them. RFID readers and antenna are used in it.

On every chip there are four types of memory banks:

1.User

2.Reserved

3.TID

4.EPC 

Every memory bank specifies the item which is tagged or in the which bank.

Many different types and shapes of RFID tags are available with a lot of features and options for operating. Every tag is specific to the surface materials,environments and applications.

Types of RFID tags

For a large variety of RFID applications it comes in many different types. Its types are hard and inlays tags. Inlays are cheaper than hard tags. It ranges from $0.09 to $1.75 depending on features of tags. Hard tags are more resistant which vary between $1.00 to $2.00

Form Factor – Inlay, Label, Card, Badge, Hard Tag

Frequency Type– LF, NFC, HF, UHF Passive (902 – 928 MHz, 865 – 868 MHz, or 865 – 960 MHz), BAP, Active

Environmental Factors– Water resistant, Rugged, Temperature resistant, Chemical resistant

Customizable– Shape, Size, Text, Encoding

Specific Features/Applications– Laundry Tags, Sensor Tags, Embeddable Tags, Autoclavable Tags, Vehicle Tags, High Memory Tags

Specific Surface Materials– Metal mount tags, Glass mount tags, Tags for Liquid-filled items

Tag pricing

Type and quantity of tags determine its price. Prices of both types of tags are already mentioned. For higher level of customization more expensive tags will be used when compared to off-shelf tags.

Selecting an RFID tag

1.Type of surface for tagging e.g metal,wood and plastic

2.Reed range for your desire.

3.Size limitations

4.Excessive environment conditions to consider e.g extreme heat or cold.

5.Attachment method

Testing a lot of items and tags will result in the final selection. RFID tag samples determine the amount and type of tag used.

RFID reader

What is RFID reader

RFID reader is brain for any system and is necessary for a system to work. Readers are also known as interrogate which are used to transmit signals for communicating with the tags. There are two types of RFID types

  1. Fixed RFID readers
  2. Mobile RFID readers

Former ones stay in a fixed location and are mounted on the walls, desks or some stationary position. Integrated reader is a common subset. Integrated RFID reader is a one-built antenna with an external antenna as well. Integrated readers are pleasing and without a high traffic of the tagged items.

Mobile readers are handheld devices which allow flexibility with a host computer or smart device. There are two mobile RFID readers categories:

1.Mobile computing devices-readers with an on-board computer

2.Secondly, for readers which use a Bluetooth or auxiliary connection.

These devices are called sleds. Fixed RFID readers stay still at one point I.e one antenna and connect to eight different other points. With a multiplexer One can go up to 32 RFID antennas. Area of coverage determine the number of antennas. Desktop applications require only small area of coverage and one antenna works well in this case. Other applications require larger area of coverage. For the coverage area many antennas are used.

 Types of RFID readers

For RFID categorization we term them as mobile or fixed ones. Other RFID categories include connectivity, available utilities, features, processing capabilities, power options, antenna ports, etc.

1.Frequency Range- 902 – 928 MHz US, 865 – 868 MHz EU, Etc.*

2.Mobility– Fixed Readers, Integrated Readers; Mobile Readers

3.Connectivity Options– Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, LAN, Serial, USB, Auxiliary Port

4.Available Utilities– HDMI, GPS, USB, Camera, GPS, GPIO, 1D/2D Barcode, Cellular Capabilities

5.Processing Capabilities– OnBoard Processing, No OnBoard Processing

6.Power Options– Power Adapter, PoE, Battery, In-Vehicle, USB

7.Available Antenna Ports– No External Ports, 1-Port, 2-Port, 4-Port, 8-Port, 16-Port

Reader pricing

It is the most expensive part of an RFID system. It varies from $400 to $3000 based on the capabilities and features. USB readers are of only $300. They have a very short range and are mostly used for the applications of desktop. Fixed and handheld readers vary in pricing depending on the features.

Selecting an RFID reader

1.What is the reed range for your application

2.Any excessive environments to consider?

3.Will reader be added to the network?

4.Where will you place reader?

5.Does your reader need to be mobile?

6.How many read zones do you need?

7.How many tags are needed at a time?

8.How quickly does a tag move through a reader?

RFID antennas

These are necessarily elements required for converting RFID readers signal into RF waves which are then picked by the RFID tags. Without an antenna one cannot receive or send signals.

These are slow devices as compared to RFID readers and take signals from the power.With the energy signals are transmitted to RFID tags in the vicinity. When a signal is generated in a specific direction it determines the efficiency of the antenna. For a more powerful gain the higher will be the RF field.

Efficiency of a system is determined by its polarity. Antenna polarity should be aligned with the RFID tag. If they reduce the read range will be reduced. Vertically-linear polarized antenna and a horizontally-linearly polarized antenna wont work together.

Circularly polarized will generate waves that generate waves in all directions. Enhanced flexibility of an application is produced in this way. RFID tags are read in the multiple directions. The energy is divided into two planes which will make one area less powerful than the other.

Types of Antennas

They can also be divided into different categories based on the applications.There are a few factors for dividing it two main points are considered Antennas are polarity (circular vs linear) and ruggedness (indoor vs. outdoor).

1.Frequency Range– 902 – 928 MHz, 865 – 868 MHz, 860 – 960 MHz

2.Polarity– Circular, Linear

3.Ruggedness– Indoor IP Rated, Outdoor IP Rated

4.Read Range– Proximity (Near-Field), Far-Field

5.Mounting Type– Shelf Antenna, Ground Antenna, Panel Antenna, Portal Antenna

Antenna pricing

RFID antennas vary from $30 to $300 per antenna. Some of them vary due to additional points like application-specific factors, such as ground/mat antennas. They have specialized applications like race timing, people, bikes and other stuff. They should be rugged enough to survive and perform well. Functioning and a non-functioning system is determined through the specialized antennas. They are also considered an investment.

Selecting an RFID Antenna

1.What is the read range?

2.Excessive environmental conditions to consider?

3.Will you mount antenna indoor or outdoor?

4.What is the exact size you want?

5.What is the orientation of the tag relative to the position in your application needs for the application?

Kits and additional items

Developmental kits

RFID developmental kit is used for all the collection and assigning of the information in the RFID tag. They are needed for writing and reading RFID tags. This is recommended as it allows people to use it right away. These kits are made from the manufacturers of reader so tags and recommended antenna is needed with them.  There is also a sample program inside it for writing and reading RFID kits or SDK.

SDK contains the documents, API codes and software  about writing so that the developer can start writing his own program about the application.

RFID cables

These cables help in communication between RFID reader and RFID antenna. Without it reader is unable to send signals to the antenna and power it. Choosing a cable seems easier than other parts but every cable comes with a specification. Basically a RFID wire varies in three different forms:

1.Length

2.Connector Types

3.Thickness

So before purchasing always keep in mind these three things. To choose a right connector for any end of the cable choose it wisely. E.g if RFID reader has an RP-TNC female connector then one side of your cable should have RP-TNC male and vice versa. For more information regarding our cable look at RFID cable guide.

Insulation rating of cable basically its length and thickness varies according to your specific task. If your cable is long more power will be lost obviously in the transmission. RFID reader and antenna distance determines how far your cable should be?

To minimize this power loss use a more insulated cable which will be more thicker. The longer length will increase the efficiency of a cable and minimize its power loss. Wit more insulation rating your cable will be more thick and rigid. It will make it difficult to bend and hence no bending when working around its corners.

Other Equipment & Accessories

There are many other equipment s present to enhance the system capacity. They will all help in the supplement of your system. Some of them are:

1.RFID portals

2.RFID printers

3.GPIO adapters

4.RF power mappers

5.Antenna mounting brackets

Up next

Even though this whole article is filled with RFID, it is a very small part of all the information related to RFID. We have a lot of other ways to learn about this technology:

RFID insider

It is a RFID blog which will keep you updated about all the new trends and advancements in this field. It doesn’t matter if you are a new comer or an expert we cover all topics so everyone can take benefit from it.

Youtube channel

AtlasRFIDchannel is our you tube channel with all the information ,tutorials and interviews of this Technology. We are looking for a radio frequency along with other applications for the advancement of our technology.

Ebooks and resources

We have a lot of guide similar to this one which shows the main components of RFID system, RFID applications and even information needed for the system deployment. In our RFID resource section we also have Info graphics, customer profiles and white papers for our users. For any new information fee free to contact us.

Buy here Schneider electric RFID system

Different types of sensors (for Object Detection)

4 types of proximity switches

Proximity switches close or opens the electrical circuit when they come near to any object at a certain distance. For the manufacture of robotics, equipment and security systems these switches are used.

We have 4 types of proximity switches I,e Inductive, acoustic, infrared and capacitive.

Schneider electric proximity sensor

Infrared

Invisible infrared beams are sent in this case. The proximity switch has a photo detector that detects any reflections from this light. These reflections tell proximity switches about the presence of an object. proximity switches which just have a photo-diode and a light source also give false results of the light but in the advanced case, a specific frequency light is only captured. Receivers only respond to that frequency. In complex switches, light is used to compute the distance of an object.

Acoustic

They work on the same principle as Infrared ones but the only difference is that these switches use sound instead of infrared radiations. The transducer is used to send sound waves in a preset manner to the object in its surroundings. Then these waves hit the object and return to the second receiver at a given time.

These switches calculate the time it takes to produce an echo and distance is measured by using it. Submarines’ sonars also use this method.

Capacitive

Changes in electrical capacitance are used to measure the distance to the objects. The radio frequency oscillator is used to connect with a metal plate. When a plate comes near an object its frequency changes and a signal is en to the switch for opening or closing it. One side-effect of these switches is that they are more sensitive to objects which are electrically conductive than the others.

Inductive

Magnetic Fields are generated by these switches to measure the distance. They work like metal detectors. Electrical current is produced in a metal wire and an electronic circuit is then used for measuring this current. If metal is close enough to the coil, its electromagnetic field will increase and a signal is sent to the switch for opening or closing. But these switches only detect metallic objects.

Proximity

These switches are used in several different manufacturing processes. The distance of machine components, in a security system to check the distance of opening a door is measured by them. It is also used in the robotics field where its presence near any object is checked and then the movement of robotics can be changed.

  • What are proximity sensors?

Proximity sensors have a wide application in the manufacturing and industrial fields. They are used to detect the presence of an object and then take some action or simply detect their presence or absence. These sensors don’t require any kind of physical contact with the object or any sense near it. So these are also known as non-contact sensors.

There are different types of sensing techniques present in these sensors. These all techniques are used to categorize these sensors including other factors like material and environmental factors to consider.

The common types of sensors are listed below:

Capacitive

These sensors operate by noticing any change in the capacitance. The electrical charge and the voltage difference between two surfaces are known as the capacitance. It can be an air gap or some other material which is a Di-electric constant. When an object comes nearby, Di-electric is affected and capacitance is changed. This change is recognized as capacitance.

Buy schneider electric Capacitive sensor

Inductive

When inductance is changed these senors work. When a current is changed in a conductor a voltage difference is produced which is a reason for inductance. Because of these inductive properties they only work in the metal and not in plastics. The type of material for sensing also influences the sensing distance. Like ferromagnetic materials have the strongest sensing distance and other metals such as aluminum or copper will have much shorter distance.

Schneider electric Inductive proximity sensor

Photoelectric

They operate on a light. These sensors are dependent on the amount of light available to the detector in the sensor. Mainly we have two types of photo-electric sensors: through beam and reflective. Reflective sensors are mostly in the same housing as the emitter beam. They work by emitting a light that will strike an object and is reflected back to the detector. Through-beam, sensors have two housing: one is emitter and the other is sensor or detector. If any objects break a light, the detector will register this break.

Here are Square D Photo-electric sensor products

Ultrasonic

Sound waves are sued for detecting objects. The ultrasound wave is sent to the object and it is reflected back to the detector. The time period is predefined for this reflection and thus the distance of this object is measured when it returns after the reflection. These ultrasonic sensors are used in many different types of applications that are used for measuring a distance of an object e.g automotive park-assist functions and in bottles to check the filling level.

An upcoming post will describe in detail all these proximity sensors.

We sell Schneider electric ultrasonic sensor

7 Types of Sensors for Object Detection

Object detection is a very critical step in automatic industry,arrival of carrier puck and the presence of an object on the conveyor. Software developers and engineers need to know that they have inserted the detection sensor.

Programming based on a particular event is a very common method and they require all these inputs at the location in a computer’s program or  PLC ladder logic program. Sensing devices don’t inspect,measure or weigh the object under discussion. Their signal needs to be accurate for the absence and presence of a particular object via sending electrical signals.

A lot of technologies for sensing are available in the market today. Below are seven most common sensing types given along with the operation,constraints and advantages:

  • Electro-mechanical

Electro-Mechanical switch is the most common type. If you replace a mechanical actuator with an object,its micro-switch will change. Rollers, whiskers and levers are types of actuators offered by the different types of manufacturers. Because of moving parts wear and tear is possible in these objects.

We sell these items below:

Square d whisker switch

Schneider electric roller limit switch

watts pneumatic actuator

Apollo Actuators & Controls

Square D limit switch lever

  • Pneumatic

Compressed air and diaphragm are sued by these sensors to detect an object. Tiny orifice will allow the leak in the valve and the target is blocked the stream. Minute change in air pressure is created. Downstream diaphragm detect this pressure change which produces an electrical signal. Environments which require explosion proof sensor or extremely dirty places are very good places for this application.

Schneider electric explosion proof switch

Pneumatic Actuator

  • Magnetic

When an actuating sensor is placed in the sensing range of these sensors they become activated. Two operating principles are commonly used: one is reed contact and other is hall effect transducer. In both examples presence of magnetic field will create a difference in the sensing path. air cylinder’s internal piston can be detected by both these sensors. reed switches  fail more often as compared to the hall effect transducer so engineers prefer the later one.

list of magnetic proximity sensor

  • Inductive

These sensors detect the object which cause changes in the magnetic field of a sensor. Type and amount of metal determines the accurate detection. They have many shapes and sizes. These are reliable and cost-effective. So these are mostly used in the automation and equipment process.

  • Capacitive

Non-metallic objects are detected by these sensors which have a DI-electric difference due to air difference. They have a good range in detecting wood, paper, fabric, liquid and plastic. Unlike Inductive sensors they don’t detect a change in the elector-magnetic switch they utilize it.

  • Photoelectric

They are different sensors and have varied applications. Basically all these send a beam of light and detect any change in the amount of light which came back. diffuse, reflective and through-beam are three most popular ones. visible, infrared, LED or laser light sources are sued. Change in the diffusion due to the diffuse in the optical field of a sensor is detected by the diffuse sensors. The diffuser detects the light which come back from the object itself. Beam of light is created by Reflective and through-beam sensors and observe any source which break this beam. 50m beam of light or more is created by these two types of sensors. Transparent or varying-surface objects can be problematic for these sensors.

  • Ultrasonic

Ultrasonic waves are send towards a target and they return back to the sensor after reflecting back from the target. All dense materials e.g. metal, wood, plastic, glass, liquid, etc. Reflect these sound waves and color, transparent or shiny objects do not affect these waves. Foaming materials which absorb these sound waves are not a good target for these sensors. Liquid levels in tanks are checked by these sensors. For equipment automation and industrial application Ecocicuitbreaker.com Technology Corporation has worked for decades for finding the best sensor level. Contact this technology for more possible solutions to the most difficult problems of manufacturing.

proximity sensor working principle: Simple explanation

Proximity Sensors convert physical quantity into a signal which is known as proximity sensors. Infrared filters are used for powering them and the have broad applications in various fields.

They detect objects near to them even if these objects have no contact among it and sensor. The signal is sent by the sensor as long the object is in the defined vicinity of the sensor. These are known as proximity sensors because they detect the motion or presence of an object electrically.

Types of proximity sensors

Many different types of proximity sensors are available and they depend on the need and the material to be detected near them. Let’s take a look:

Inductive proximity sensors

The electrical signal is produced by these sensors as soon any object approaches them or comes near to them from any direction. iron, aluminum, brass, copper and other types of metals are also detected by the inductive proximity sensors. Each of these metals can be detected at a different sensing distance.

Flat targets are preferred with the sensors. If targeting distance is larger than the sensing distance, the sensing face can increase this distance. This was introduced in the mid-’60s.

Capacitive proximity sensors

Along with detecting metals resins, powders, liquids, are also identified by these sensors. covering material, cable longness, and noise sensitivity can vary the effectiveness of these sensors. Factors like temperature, sensing object, surrounding the object and the mounting distance between the sensors can vary the sensing distance. 25mm is its maximum range of senses.

Magnetic proximity sensors

They work on magnets and do not have any kind of electrical effect which makes them work in both AC and DC modes. Factors like temperature, objects surrounding it, as well as the mounting distance between the sensors can affect the sensing distance of these sensors. They can sense up to 120mm and have the highest sensing distance. mobile phones, tablets, and security gadgets use these magnetic proximity sensors. Mobile phones become more responsible and useful with these senors.

Thus these are the major types of sensors available in the market today and how they work.

telemecanique inductive proximity switch

Schneider motion sensor

Telemecanique sensors through beam

Square D occupancy sensor

Schneider Electric proximity sensor

Different type of Proximity Sensors: Inductive, Capacitive, Photoelectric, and Ultrasonic

Proximity Sensors Compared: Inductive,Capacitive, Photoelectric, and Ultrasonic

These sensors detect the object’s presence or absence using fields, sound, and light. There are different types of them and each of them has their applications and environments.

Inductive sensors

These are proximity sensors that detect ferrous targets. This is ideally known as mild steel which is thicker than 1 mm. These sensors have 4 components:

1. An oscillator

2. Schmitt trigger

3. Output amplifier

The oscillator’s basic function is to create symmetrical electromagnet waves that originate from the iron coil and core at the sensing face. When a ferrous body enters this magnetic field, it touches the surface of the metal and induced currents are produced. This, in turn, changes the natural frequency of the magnetic field and the oscillation is decreased. This edgy current is directly proportional to the induced currents and in the end, the oscillation is ceased. The trigger of Schmitt reacts to these changes and adjust the output. When your target is moved from the sensor’s range the schmitt starts oscillating again and output is back to the basics.

In the normal open configuration the target’s output is in the ON position. This happens when the target enters the sensing zone. Normally closed is considered its OFF position. The output is controlled by a control unit. This unit converts the On and OFF states into some information that can be used. Inductive sensors are rated by the frequency and on/off cycle per second. Its speed is 10 to 20 Hz in ac or 500 Hz to 5 kHz in dc. Magnetic field limitations, these sensors have a very low range of sensing from one millimeter to 60mm on the average rate. If you want a large range then advanced products are also available.

For accommodating the close ranges in the industrial, geometric and mounting styles different forms of sensors are available. Some of them are shielded (flush), unshielded (non-flush), tubular, and rectangular “flat-pack”. most popular ones are the Tubular ones with a diameter from 3 to 40mm.

If sensors are lacking in the range they are environmentally friendly and are versatile in metal sensing. Proper setup always guarantees the long-lasting life. If your sensor has an IP rating of 67 or above are strong enough to fight with the contaminants like cutting fluids, grease, and non-metallic dust, both in the air and on the sensor itself. However, metallic contamination can affect the working of the sensor. The housing of a typical sensor is nickel-plated brass, stainless steel, or PBT plastic.

Capacitive sensors

 These sensors detect both metallic and non-metallic targets in the powder, solid and liquid form. They can also sense sight glass monitoring, hopper powder level recognition, and tank liquid level detection.

In this sensor two leads are housed within the sensing head and operate as an open capacitor. As air is an insulator that makes these capacitors with little capacitance at rest. These lead are connected to the oscillator, a Schmitt trigger, and an output amplifier like in the inductive sensors. When a target enters a sensing zone the capacitance of the sensor increase which results in the oscillation of the amplitude. Schmitt trigger state is changed after this point and in the end, an output signal is created. Always note the difference between the capacitative and inductive sensors: inductive sensors oscillate until the target is present as compared to the capacitance sensors in which oscillation lasts when the target is present.

Because the plates of the capacitor involve the charging plates and are slower than the inductive sensing. The charge lasts from 10 to 50 Hz and a sensing scope from the 3-60 mm. Many different housing styles are available. 12 to 60 mm is their common diameter. It has both the shielded and unshielded versions. Rugged housing allows the mounting of the place.

Normally open and closed options have an optimum output. Non-target materials should be kept away from these sensors to avoid false triggering. For the ferrous material try using an inductive sensor.

Photoelectric sensors

These are very versatile and solve a lot of problems related to industrial sensing. As photoelectric technology is so advanced you can detect your targets 1mm or from 60m away. Many different photoelectric configurations are available. Every photoelectric sensor has the following components:

1. Emitter light source (Light Emitting Diode, a laser diode), 

2. A photodiode or phototransistor receiver to detect emitted light, and 

3. supporting electronics designed to amplify the received signal. 

4. The emitter sends the signal to the receiving beam.

All the photoelectric sensors operate in the same principles. The output activity is made easy through the dark and light-on classification refer to the light reception. In dark-on mode the sensor is dark-on. If the output from the light is received the light is ON.

You have to decide light-on and light-off depending on the adjustment and usage. The output style can be specified by flipping a switch or wiring the sensor.

Through-beam

Photoelectric-sensing is also reliable with through-beam sensors. The receiver is separated from the receiver through separate housing. The emitter provides a beam of light and detection occurs when the beam passes through the breaks of the beam. It is a very least-favorite sensor setup. In this way, an installation, purchase, and alignment of both emitter and receiver are always in two opposite directions which is a lengthy and laborious thing.

New photo beam sensors are very common and with a high resolution. 60m well-collimated beam is provided by these laser diode emitter models for the best detection and accuracy. With accuracy, you can detect a fly flying nearby you at a distance of 1mm. The response speed of these sensors apart from the other factors is the same as other sensors which are 500 Hz. 

These through-beam photoelectric sensors can easily detect the presence of thick air-borne contaminants. If pollutants build on the emitter or receiver there is a high chance of false triggering. Alarm’s output is incorporated into the sensory circuit that monitors the amount of light which is received by the emitter. If a light decreases to a specified level without any target then a warning by using a built-in LED light is given.

These beam-sensors have both commercial and industrial applications. At your home, they detect the obstruction being present at the garage and saved many accidents from happening like a bicycle and a car. At industrial conveys objects are detected by these sensors as long these sensors don’t burn-out. Burnout can happen in light-colored or thin objects in which LED light can pass through the receiver.

Retro-reflective


These are next in line for the largest photoelectric sensing distance and some units are capable of monitoring the ranges up to 10m. If you operate the same thorough beam sensors the output is broken. The sensing distance is not reached at this time. Emitter and receiver are housed in the same direction at the same location. Laser, infrared or visible light beam is produced by the emitter. It is then reflected towards a reflector which is used to deflect the beam back to the receiver. Detection only occurs when a path of light is broken or disturbed.

This reflective sensor is preferred over the through-beam sensor because of only one wiring location is required in the former. Money is saved through this point. Shiny and reflective objects e.g mirrors or juice cans create a problem for these sensors. The receiver is tricked through continuous light that the beam is not broken in some cases. A tremendous amount of output is produced in this case.  

Polarization filtering is also a solution to this problem as it will only reflect or receive light from one major source and cancels the effect of others.

Diffuse sensor

Like retro-reflectors diffuse sensor’s receiver and emitter are located in the same house. Target acts as a reflector in this case which will reflect the light off the disturbing object.The beam of light is sent by the emitter which is evenly diffused in all directions thus filling the area. This beam is infrared or visible light. Target enters the area and reflects the beam to the receiver. Only some part is deflected in this case. Detection occurs and output is turned off only if sufficient light falls on the receiver. It depends on the sensor is light-on or dark-off.

automatic faucets present in the sink on public washrooms controlled by these diffuser sensors. When you place hands below the spray heads it triggers the water release and allows the opening of the water valve. As the target is a reflector in these sensors so in some cases the amount of reflection varies. E.g on a shiny surface more refection is obtained as compared to black and matte surfaces. So a surface reflection is the main factor but this drawback is useful in many instances.

Colour dependent sensors are suitable for distinguishing for the dark and light applications of targets that require sorting by contrast. The only sensor is needed to mount in this sensor so diffuse sensor is more reliable than through-beam and retro-reflective types. In this way, false triggers are ignored by these sensors and they only see which is reflective.

There are two methods to achieve this goal. The first is fixed-field technology. Like a photoelectric sensor, this diffused sensor emits radiation but for two receivers. One of them is for the long-range and the second one is for the targeted spot. A cooperator is used for detection which receiver is responding more accurate. The only output is focused when the focused receiver output is higher than the desired one.

We use an array of receivers with an adjustable sensing distance in the second method. The potentiometer is used for the adjournment of the range. These sensors operate well when preset on their spots. These sensors recognize small parts and also higher tolerances in target area cutoff specifications and improved color sensing capabilities. Surface attributes like glossiness can vary results sometimes. When you set the receivers electrically they reflect a lot amount of light from the target sensors.

True background suppression by triangulation is designed by engineers to overcome this problem.

A background controlling sensor emits light like the standard emitter in this case. But this sensor focus on the angle of light rather than focusing on the beam of light or its frequency.

Focusing lens and two receivers are used by this background suppression sensors. This angle is adjusted mechanically which allows the steep cutoff between the background and target. It can be as small as 0.1mm. In the case of reflective backgrounds or color variations, this is the most reliable method. This point can affect the frequency of light but not the angle through which you can obtain accurate information.

Ultrasonic sensors

Different automated production processes use these ultrasonic sensors. Sound waves are used in these sensors for the detection of color and frequency doesn’t matter though extreme textures might matter. Following are applications of these ultrasonic sensors:

1. Long-range detection of clear glass and plastic, 

2. distance measurement, 

3. continuous fluid and granulate level control and

4. Paper, sheet metal, and wood stacking.

Configurations are just like the photoelectric sensing I.e beam,retro-reflective and diffuse versions. These sonic sensors send sound waves to the target and listen for the returning sound waves from their target location. The sonic transducer is the device that is used to produce these sounds waves. Then these returning signals are directed to the output control. They can extend to 2.5 m. The Teach-in button or potentiometer can be used to adjust the sensitivity of the sound waves.

analog signals are produced by some transducers along with the standard simple present/absent output which indicates the distance of 4 to 20 mA or 0 to 10 Vdc variable output. One can easily convert this output to distance information.

by measuring propagation time these ultrasonic retro-reflective sensors also detect a specific object but within a specified limit. This sensor emits sonic pulses which are bounced off at any hard surface. These sound waves must return in the given period otherwise there is some object in the path and the output will be in accordance. For the detection of deflecting and sound-absorbent materials this sensor is ideal as changes in propagation time are easily detected by it. So it is best for cotton, foam, cloth, and foam rubber.

ultrasonic through-beam sensors have their emitter and receiver in the different housing like through-beam photoelectric sensors. If there is an output in the signal wave the receiver will produce an output. These sensors are best for the detection of a continuous object, such as a web of clear plastic. If both of them break an output signal is sent to the attached PLC or load.

Schneider electric Pressure Sensors

Schneider electric Occupancy Sensors

Schneider electric Current Sensors

Square D Temperature Sensors

Square D Humidity Sensors

Square D Air Quality Sensors

PROXIMITY & PRESENCE SENSORS

Should you get a Manual Transfer Switches for Grocery Store?

Manual Transfer Switches for Grocery Stores

Trusted Backup Power Solutions:

Consistent power is vital to run the operation of a grocery store smoothly. Without backup solutions, you are exposing your business to risk no matter small one or big enterprise. Our company provides you with a solution (Manual Transfer Switch) to backup your stores with a consistent power to save yourself from the potential security risks, and help in maintaining a good relationship with loyal customers.

We built custom manual transfer switches according to the needs of customers and his business so that stay powered up and generate sales. Our Electrical engineers work closely with the customer to know about their specific requirements to meet the expectation of the customer. Our custom-built manual switches are easy to use with the backup generators and help you in taking a competitive edge over the competitors, keep your store open regardless of power outages.

If you require more information, contact our support center and learn more about manual transfer switches from our qualified engineers.

Transfer Switches Following UL Listed Manual for Grocery Stores

Manual transfer switches differ according to the size and location of the area. By taking into account the safety and NEMA standards, our engineers do a thorough analysis of a place. Provide a custom-built manual switch that best suits your grocery store according to the conditions.

Manual transfer switches built by our company for your grocery store are according to the UL listed manual. Our engineer’s particular focus is on UL specifications, so that manual switches built to meet all UL specifications, including those which are in UL 1008 standard. When talking about the configuration, Yes they are available both fused and non-fusible configuration.

This includes:

•         Made in compliance NEC regulations

•          60 Seconds Hi-pot test

•          Safety box with door for unconnected cables

•          Cam-style male connector

•          Power distribution block

•          2 circuit breakers with mechanically interlocked molded case

•          Grounded terminals

•          Much more, Contact us

Use Manual Transfer Switches in Grocery Stores

Without backup power, you cannot run a grocery store. There are power outages caused by different reasons, emergency or planned by the utility company. Manual transfer switches help you to overcome this power issue by providing backup power to your grocery store and power up the following things listed below.

Lights: When there are power outage people love to go outside spend time and do some shopping.  You can have a competitive edge to generate a sale and make a strong relationship with the customer at your grocery store while others were sitting idle in the dark.

Air Condition: People love to shop in a pleasant environment. Your grocery store Air condition and equipment will work consistently during outages.

Security systems: Increase your security by running the backup electric power and capture every moment when there is a power outage.

Refrigerator: In power outages, it prevents the spoilage of food and the melting of frozen products by quickly supplying the backup power to the generators.

Geysers: Supply warm water throughout the store by providing power to the water heaters in power outage.

Computers/ other systems: It keeps the cash counter and office computers running and makes the operations smooth by providing backup power.

There is much more.

Why Us for Manual Transfer Switches

By meeting international standards, our company provides clients with high-quality products at reasonable rates by precisely considering their needs. Why prefer us:

•         100% customer level of satisfaction

•         Before/ On-time delivery

•         24 hours of qualified engineers for support

•         Material warranty for one year

•         UL certified products

•         Quick response to problems

•         Private label manufacturing

We helped many grocery stores with their problems related to power. If you also need help or knowledge about manual transfer switch contacts our support now. Our engineers are available 24/7 to help you.

Order Schneider electric safety switch & Schneider electric Molded case circuit breaker

Motor starters questions answered

FAQs about Motor Starters

At Ecocircuitbreaker.com, we are regularly gotten some information about our engine starters. We’ve compiled an inventory of our most often asked queries underneath. If you have got additional specific question that is not replied here, please don’t hesitate to get in touch with us for further help. We have a tendency to help!

What is a motor starter?

An engine starter is a device that connects with an engine to decrease the current at staring time and increase the current once starting the motor, giving overload protection. Motor starters help stop, start, reverse, accelerate, and secure motors.

Why is overload protection important?

Overload protection shields the motor from drawing an excessive amount of current and overheating.

What kind of motor starters do you offer and which one should I choose?

At Ecocircuitbreaker.com, we offer:

1. Wye Delta open transition: this kind of starter is used for large air compressors and pumps.

2. Soft Solid state: Ecocircuitbreaker.com soft starters can invariably include SCRs, Overload Relay, and By-Pass Contactor. The starter can deliver a controlled voltage to soft start.

3. Wye Delta OEM mounted on sub-panel: This starter is mounted on metal sub-panel for fast and simple installation.

For facilitate selecting the best motor starter for your specific application, contact us. We’ve the business information and knowledge to purpose you within the right direction.

 Why should I choose Ecocircuitbreaker.com for my motor starter?

Our full range of products is designed to meet any of your organization’s needs. All of our products are industry-certified and tested for maximum performance. When you choose Ecocircuitbreaker.com, you receive:

·            Auto CAD layout drawings

·            Auto CAD electrical schematics

·            SOLIDWORKS 3D modeling and design

·            PLC programming and development

·            Equipment built to UL508A and cUL508A standards

  And more!

Order Your Motor Starter Today

For over 25 years, our Charlotte-based company has offered reliable electrical solutions. If you’re ready to invest in a motor starter, contact Ecocircuitbreaker.com today! We are going to answer all of your queries and assist you select the right starter for your specific application.

Not sure what instrumentality you need? Give us a call

Square D Motor Circuit Breakers, Square D Manual starter , schneider electric Definite Purpose Starters & Square D IEC Starters

What does a Power Monitoring System do?

Are your energy expenses driving you mad? Are you concerned that your energy costs are boosting up charging you more and more, over the period of time?

If you analyze your energy cost history log spreadsheets for the past few years, you’ll certainly come to the conclusion that your costs are creeping up. But how can you avoid them? Here’s how you do it.

But why not the conventional metering system?

What’s best about this instrument is that you will now be able to actually measure your power consumption in real-time. The measure has been there for a long time as large manufacturers prefer methods that are more efficient and that give them the opportunity to control and monitor their power. Using the advancements in broadband connectivity, now local business venturers will be able to apply this innovative technology.

Do you really need energy efficiency?

As the earth is on the verge of severe climate change hazard its high time that the industrial and commercial experts work together in seeking ways to invent and utilize more power-efficient energy using methods. anti-climate change protests are on the run and reforms being made on worldly forums for the countries that can save their resources for future generations and save the human race from perilous effects of pollution.

The process of making electricity involves the production of many dangerous emissions that harm the environment. This includes CO2 emissions and many solid and liquid wastes.

What we need is a way by which we can reduce our annual energy consumption and conserve more of it. Power Monitoring System being cheap, efficient, and reliable is the answer to all of it. This futuristic design is would be our modern reality in the days to come.

How does it work?

Getting an insight into how power monitoring actually works, it is a network of meters connected to the internet. In this way, the consumers are able to get real-time data on their power systems regarding their energy consumption.

All the electrical equipment in an area is connected to a meter. The meters are run by software that allows you to monitor your power systems and identify potential storage capacity. It enables the owners to keep an eye on even the millisecond shift in their power system on a continuum.

The information is made available online to the owners with the help of which they can observe their power systems in real-time and take precautionary measures to avoid any unnecessary damage before time by setting alarms and email notifications if the power systems start working outside a defined normal parameter.

Now you can proactively manage energy on your terms rather than waiting for the bill to see your costs at the concluding month. This helps you to actually watch where your energy resources are going and determine the necessary actions needed to improve your management.

 The reason this kind of technology is more relevant in today’s age as it will counter and avoid the energy wastage and will guide us in using the available resources in a smart way.

So why should you use a power monitoring system?

Using a power monitoring system will ensure:

  1. Timely identification and notification of power quality troubles
  2. Increased durability of advance IT equipment
  3. Saving motors from detrimental electrical currents and surges
  4. Avoiding overheating of conductors and transformers
  5. Overseeing equipment’s functioning before it starts to malfunction

Schneider electric PowerLogic Energy Meters, Square D PowerLogic Power Meters

How to Wire a Lighting Contactor

For powering the specific area we can use the Lighting Contractors, Lighting Contractors works like a switch( which controls the electric current). Higher voltages that are fatal to humans, Lighting Contractor can be the solution to that problem because they can be controlled remotely and they are safe as they are working on lower load. 

Working on electrical loads requires serious safety precautions like working on high electrical loads electrical gloves are necessary. Circuit breakers can be used to powering off the whole specific area.

Service boxes can be found near the transformer which contains the main wires and circuit breakers. To open the service box lose the screws using a screwdriver. In the service box, there are six terminals, 2 for low voltages and 4 for high voltages.

To wire, a contactor uses the low voltage terminal and to wire the circuit breaker to use the high voltage terminal.

Click here for Schneider electric Low Voltage Transformer and Square D industrial control transformers

What cause of tripping GFCI breaker?

Main causes of tripping of GFCI breaker

It is so normal for GFCI breaker to trip-off or occurrence of any other damage such as fire; while we are using heavy or so many appliances. There can be many reasons for GFCI breaker tripping, one of them is electrical system glitches. The main function of GFCI breaker is to protect electrical systems from overloads and oversupply of voltage. So the purpose of building this breaker to shut down in any of these events. Therefore in case of power surges, short circuits or any other flaw in the electrical system that can cause serious hazard will cause the breaker to trip. This can save your life and property from any hazardous incident. Main causes for tripping of GFCI breaker are,

·         Hi Ampere – A high amount of current in the circuit can be detected by a GFCI breaker and because of this tripping can occur to save from damages.

·         Faulty Breaker – Faulty breaker is another main cause of GFCI breaker tripping. Due to degradation, a breaker will not work efficiently.

·         Water- One of the main causes of GFCI breaker tripping is water. Since wetness of electrical components like plugs, naked wires or cable connectors can cause tripping of breaker.

·         Unbalanced Loads –  Due to frequently ON/OFF of several electrical appliances of variant power, breaker can be tripped.

·         Grounding – In electrical circuit, one safe wire is used, called ground wire, which draws excess current in wires. If it is not properly connected so can cause breaker to trip.

Lets call Ecocircuitbreaker.com to install your GFCI breaker

As safety of your life and property is more important and if you have faulty GFCI breaker or any one of the above-mentioned problems or want to install a new one. Then call the professionals at Ecocircuitbreaker.com Electrical mange to install A breaker for safety. Ecocircuitbreaker.com’s professional’s electricians would be happy to come in and install or evaluate breakers for your safety.

We carry many other product manufactured by schneider electric such as Square D Arc Fault Breaker, Square D High Magnetic Circuit Breakers, Square D Branch Circuit Breakers and Schneider Electric (DF) Dual Function Breakers

What does a definite purpose contactor do?

What are definite purpose contactors?

Let’s start with the purpose of contractors:

Connectors are the device that is used to transfer the power circuits. Moreover, you can use that device to transfer electric supply from one segment to another like u can control the direction of the air conditioning vents or use that in the heaters.

This device uses for high voltage electric devices which are commonly consuming more than 15 amperes. Moreover, contractors are designed to control the suppress the arc generates during the interruption of heavy motors.

When the electricity is passed through the electromagnet field. The electromagnetic field is generated and in the result, the central coil starts the rotation and when we cut-off the electric supply, the central coil is coming back to its rest position and open its junctions.

There are two DP contractors which are divided into two branches. Which is depending on the application:

Compact 1- and 2-pole contactors (Loading capacity 20 – 40 amperes)

That contractor is commonly used in home appliances and it’s loading capacity in AC voltages are 24V,120V and 240V.

Standard frame DP contactors (Loading capacity 15 – 360 Amperes)

That contactor is used in industrial or commercial purposes like in industrial machinery, hotels, buildings, hospitals, and factories, etc. There are commercial Air Conditions up to 500 tons. By using that DP contactor we can also control the elevators, pumps, compressors, electric motors, cranes, heavy machinery, food processing plants and many more.

Basic Construction:

A contact is a part of contactor which performs as a current carrier which includes:

1. Power contacts

2. Contacts spring

3. Auxiliary contacts

There are three basic components of contactors:

Electromagnetic:

Electromagnetic gives you the force to approaching the contacts.

Enclosure:

The enclosure is the frame which is kind of insulated (non-conductor) material like Thermosetting plastic, Nylon 6 and Bakelite which work as a non-conductor for safety measure. Moreover, we can use that enclosure to protect the contactors from oil, dust as well as from the weather conditions to enhance their life span.

Coil input:

Coil input is the kind of core contractor which might be DC or AC as per the design of the contactor. The coil may be powered by the low or high voltage as the requirement of the motor, and the contractor is handling the device separately or may be controlled by the lower coil as per program in the circuit which may control the lower and higher voltage.

Ecocircuitbreaker.com listing of Schneider electric contactors, square d motor starter