SYNCHRONOUS BELTS

One of the major disadvantages of conventional belts is that slip may occur and this makes them inappropriate for applications that require synchronization of input and output shafts. Another name for a synchronous belt is timing belt and they were made to resolve this issue. Synchronous belts have a toothed profile that engages with the groove in a pulley. This simulates the characteristics and properties of chains or gears.

When they were first produced, synchronous belts were reinforced with steel but in recent times, reinforcement is done with glass fibre or aramid. The standard tooth profile on a synchronous belt is the trapezoidal profile. This profile is popular in several applications like machine tools, home appliances, business equipment, and textile machinery.

Synchronous belts have features that make them very useful. They are very flexible and thin. This makes them useful in miniature drives and high speed applications. Synchronous belts also have the ability to sustain high load.

On the flip side, synchronous belts are relatively more expensive than other belt types. There have been modifications to the tooth profile of synchronous belts. We now have the full rounded profile which is sometimes referred to as HTD. The advantage of this tooth profile is that it facilitates even distribution of load and has better tooth shear strength. Because of this, it has better load carrying capability than the trapezoidal tooth profile.

Another tooth profile is the modified curvilinear tooth design. This is also referred to as STPD. It has impressive qualities like improved load life, greater load capacity, and it is non-ratcheting.

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DIFFERENT TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL HOSES

There is a wide range of ducts and hoses and various ways of classifying them. An industrial hose is one of such categories. The categorization of hoses is based on the materials involved, sizes, and applications. In this article, we will be focusing mainly on industrial hoses.

Types of industrial hoses

Industrial hoses are made to handle lightweight materials. There are a lot of types for different work conditions and our categorization of industrial hoses will also be based on these work conditions.

  1. Chemical fume extraction hoses: Because harsh chemical processes generate a lot of fumes, they need to be ventilated and that is what this type of industrial hose is made for. Chemical fume industrial hoses are highly resistant to chemicals.
  2. Light material handling hoses: Material handling hoses are used for the transportation and movement of goods, abrasives, and dry powders.
  3. Ventilation hoses: As the name implies, this type of industrial hose handles pollutants such as air, fumes, gas, and smoke expertly. Ventilation hoses are commonly used by manufacturing, agricultural, and chemical industries that use hazardous gases and emit fumes regularly.
  4. Dust collection hoses: They are used for collecting dusts and fine materials like woodchips that may arise due to commercial and industrial operations.
  5. High temperature hoses: This type of industrial hose is used for industrial processes that involve a high temperature.

Common hose materials

Industrial hoses are made from various materials. It is very important to select materials based on compatibility and suitability with a specific application. Common materials from which industrial hoses are made include conductive PVC, coated fabric, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyurethane, polyolefin, PVC, thermoplastic rubber, silicone, and static dissipative polyurethane.

Factors to consider during hose selection process

The seven most important factors to consider during the hose selection process are:

  • Application
  • Temperature
  • Media
  • Pressure
  • Delivery
  • End fittings
  • Size

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A GUIDE FOR SELECTING AND REPLACING V-BELTS

V-belts have constantly evolved down the years since the first v-belt was produced in 1917 by John Gates. This evolution is due to improved construction methods, cover materials, and synthetic rubber compounds. Because of this, there is a wide array of options as far as v-belts are concerned and most of them are application-specific. The performance level of each option is also not the same.

Before choosing or selecting a belt, you must consider some environmental and design specification such as:

  • High speeds
  • Energy efficiency
  • Oil resistance
  • Power capacity
  • Ambient temperature
  • Clutching
  • Power capacity
  • Dust and abrasives
  • Minimal take-up
  • Ozone resistance
  • Quarter turn layout
  • Static conductivity
  • Shock loading

There are several v-belt profiles available. They include:

  1. Narrow
  2. Metric
  3. Classical
  4. Fractional horsepower

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SOME THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW BEFORE PAYING FOR AN ADJUSTABLE LINK BELT

Adjustable links belts are extremely useful tools. It does not only make a woodworking tool resistant to vibration, it is also very easy to install. In this article, we will be discussing some things worth knowing before splashing the cash on an adjustable link belt because of the various options available.

  1. It is very easy to install and setup: You wouldn’t have to break a sweat to install an adjustable link belt. It is a very straightforward process that takes little to no time. After removing a half of the link, the other half should be released by twisting the remaining tab and this should separate the belt. To reconnect the belt, simply reverse the belt separation procedure.
  2. It can be used on several tools: You can use an adjustable link belt on any woodworking tool that utilizes a v-belt. Therefore, it can serve as a replacement for worn belts in a table saw, drill press, etc.
  3. It reduces vibration: An adjustable link belt minimizes vibration expertly. With an adjustable link belt, the operation of your woodworking tool will be smoother.

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TYPES, ADVANTAGES, AND DISADVANTAGES OF BELT DRIVES

Rotational motion is important for power transmission in mechanical components. To transmit rotational motion from one mechanical element to the other, we need a drive or transmission system.

A transmission system needs a prime mover to drive it. Without a prime mover transmission of rotational motion will be impossible. Normally, rotational motion is transmitted through shafts. The driven shaft is called the driven system while the one that drives is called the driving system.

Belt drives

With a belt drive, power transmission from one shaft to another is possible. This takes place by means of rotational pulleys. The speed of rotation of these pulleys may be the same or different. Belt drives are driven over these pulleys and the frictional grip between the belt and surface of the pulley facilitates the transmission of rotary motion or mechanical power from the driving to driven pulley. The slack side is that part of the belt with less tension while the tight side is the one with greater tension. The tension difference between the slack and tight side is what gives the belt its pulling power. This tension is determined by the belt’s angle of contact. Hence, arrangement of the belt drives must be done in such a way that the tight side comes below the pulley while the slack side comes above the pulley.

Factors to consider when choosing a belt drive

In selecting a belt drive, you must consider several factors such as:

  • Speed reduction ratio
  • Shaft layout
  • Positive drive requirements
  • Power that will be transmitted
  • Speed of both pulleys (driver and driven)
  • Distance between the midpoints of both shafts

Belt types

The four most common belt types are:

  1. Flat belt: Features a rectangular cross-section. It can conveniently transmit power over a long distance between the midpoints of each pulley. Flat belts are very efficient. In fact, it has an efficiency rating of 98%. Furthermore, they do not generate a lot of noise in operation.
  2. V-belt: It has a trapezoidal cross-section and it works with a grooved pulley. It has high power transmission ability and it allows large speed ratio.
  3. Circular belt: This belt type is used with grooved pulleys and it features a circular cross-section.

Pros and cons of flat belts

Advantages

  1. Low maintenance and running cost
  2. Durable and easy to work with
  3. Flexible and simple design and construction
  4. Overload protection and great efficiency in high speed

Disadvantages

  1. It is not a positive drive
  2. It isn’t the preferred option for short-centre distances
  3. Belt’s life is affected by joint.
  4. Power loss due to slip

Pros and cons of v-belts

  1. It transmits more power than a flat belt
  2. It does not produce noise in operation
  3. It is durable
  4. Operation of the belt is possible in either direction
  5. Ease of installation and removal
  6. It is compact

Belt drive types

  1. Open belt drive:
  2. Cross belt drive
  3. Fast and loose pulleys
  4. Jockey pulley drive
  5. Speed cone drive or stepped cone pulley

Belt materials

A belt can be made from different materials; it all depends on the application. Nonetheless, there are certain characteristics such material must have. They include:

  • Durability
  • Flexibility
  • High strength
  • Impressive coefficient of friction

Common belt materials are:

  1. Leather
  2. Balata: Balata belts can withstand high temperature. They can be used under temperature above 45o.
  3. Fabric
  4. Rubber: Rubber belts are common in paper mills and sawmills.

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BEARING DISMOUNTING METHODS AND TOOLS

It is not enough to only pay attention to the mounting procedure of a bearing. The dismounting procedure should also be given close attention so that other components and parts in the system will not be damaged. In this article, we will be discussing the different options that exist as far as dismounting a bearing is concerned. We will also be looking at some useful tools for dismounting a bearing.

Almost all mechanical components have to be replaced at one point or the other. Replacement may either be premature or otherwise. Although the bearing may be useless afterwards, dismounting must be done properly so that the lifespan of the new bearing in not shortened. When you dismount a bearing professionally, the functionality of the other components in the system will not be affected. Apart from that, there is a huge safety risk involved in dismounting a bearing incorrectly.

What does dismounting mean?

Dismounting a bearing is just the opposite of mounting a bearing. It implies removing a bearing from a component. There are various reasons why a bearing may be dismounted and one of such is when repair or maintenance of other machine parts need to be done. Just as we have several mounting techniques, there are a lot of dismounting methods. They include:

  1. Manual dismounting
  2. From a withdrawal sleeve
  3. From an adapter sleeve
  4. From a cylindrical shaft seat
  5. Dismounting with heat
  6. Dismounting with oil injection method
  7. Dismounting with hydraulic assisted tools

Before dismounting a bearing, make sure you wear protective clothing. Safety is important and should not be negotiated. Another thing to avoid is direct striking of the bearing with a hard material like chisel or hammer.

Manual dismounting: This approach is best for small size bearings. It involves the use of a puller. We recommend that you make use of a three-arm puller for improved stability. It may be a bit uneasy to work alone with a puller because of its weight. Therefore, you may want to have one or two persons close to you. Manual dismounting of a bearing can either be done from a cylindrical shaft seat, an adapter sleeve, and a withdrawal sleeve.

Dismounting with the use of hydraulic assisted tools: In this method, we make use of hydraulic assisted tools like nuts and pumps to generate the required amount of force needed to dismount a bearing and other parts. This works well for small and medium sized bearings. If you need to dismount a large bearing, make use of heavy-duty jaw pullers with hydraulic assistance.

Dismounting with oil injection: In this method, the injection of oil is done under high pressure and takes place between two mating surfaces. Oil is injected through a supply duct and distribution groove. Pressurized and thin oil film creates a distinction between the mating components and this reduces the effect of friction. This bearing dismounting technique is perfect for large bearings.

Dismounting with heat: Interference fit in a cylindrical roller bearing’s inner ring is usually very tight and a great amount of force is required to dismount it. You do not want to use a puller under such circumstances as it can destroy the shaft and ring. The use of heat equipment to dismount a bearing reduces the possibility of the shaft and ring been damaged. Two common heating equipment are induction heater and aluminium heating rings.


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A COMPARISON OF V-BELTS AND SYNCHRONOUS BELTS AND WHY YOU SHOULD UPGRADE YOUR BELT DRIVE TODAY

There are different types of belts that can be used for power transmission in industrial applications and a v-belt is one of them. Actually, a v-belt is one of the oldest options and this is why it is sometimes regarded as “classical”.

Synchronous belts were introduced several years after the invention of v-belts. They are also called timing belts or high-torque drive belts. The performance of a timing belt depends on the teeth. This toothed function means that a sprocket has to be installed. The advantages of synchronous belts are enormous and a standard v-belt cannot deliver some of these advantages. In this article, we will be analysing the importance of a synchronous belt. We will also be taking a closer look at some of its advantages.

Why you should consider upgrading your v-belt to a synchronous belt

  1. No need for maintenance hassles: The performance of a v-belt depends on proper tensioning. A new v-belt may need to be re-tensioned after every 24-48 hours. On the other hand, a synchronous belt only needs to be tensioned once. The performance of a synchronous belt is self-sufficient and this leads to a reduction in the possibility of human error. If there are several belt drive systems in a facility, so much time will be spent re-tensioning v-belts.
  2. It improves efficiency: Slippage can cause the efficiency of a v-belt to drop. There is no such problem with a synchronous belt as it is designed to run slip-free. It always remains in position because of the absence of sheaves as you may find in a v-groove. In place of sheaves, a synchronous belt has flanged sprockets that keep it in place. Experts have confirmed that the efficiency of a synchronous belt is about 98% and this is very impressive.
  3. More savings on energy: Since efficiency is higher, energy loss will be minimal since so much energy is conserved. The energy requirement of a v-belt is more than what synchronous belts need. This is because a typical v-belt features a large bend radius and thicker cross-section. A synchronous belt does not have or need all of this. It positioning and movement are determined by the grip of the sprocket. The functionality of the v-belt also depends on friction and this leads to greater heat generation. Most people do not factor in operational cost when deciding between synchronous and v-belt. Although the initial cost of a v-belt is lower, you may end up spending more to keep it working optimally.
  4. It is space-saving: You must consider the space of your facility before choosing a power transmission belt. There is a misconception that the narrow nature of a v-belt means it occupies less space in a power transmission system. This is only correct for lighter load applications. If the load is heavy, there will be a need for additional support. Synchronous belts are space-saving and are ideal for systems with space constraints because of the cogs in them.
  5. Changing to an application with greater power requirement: If you are switching to an application with greater power requirement, we suggest you upgrade to a synchronous belt. The performance of a synchronous belt is maintained even under high load applications. They feature advanced polymer compounds that can withstand tough conditions, wear, and great level of torque.


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A SIMPLE BUYING GUIDE FOR CHAIN GUIDES

Chain guides are specialized parts that came up as a result of increased demand for aerial acrobatics and high-octane gravity riding. Chain drives are also referred to as chain devices or chain retention systems.

The job of a chain guide is simple, and easy. Just as the name suggests, it is designed to hold a chain in position so that it remains secured when you drive through a rough patch or bumpy terrain.

There are different types and manufacturers of chain guides. Nonetheless, what they do are the same. The only difference between the different products available is that manufacturers are battling and fighting for superiority.

Chain guides are made up of aluminium back plate that is machined into it. The aluminium plate is attached to the frame which can be found at the bottom bracket. Guides are mounted to the back plate and this holds it in place. There is a variation in the number of guides used from one product to another. In some designs, you will find a guide both at the bottom and top while in a few others; you will only find a single guide.

Also, the design of the guide is not the same for all manufacturers. While some chain guide manufacturers prefer to use an enclosed slider, other use jockeys or rollers to facilitate smooth running of the chain. Regardless of what the manufacturer uses, the goal is to make sure the chain works well through the guide without much interference from frictional forces and low noise level.

Often times chain guides and bash guides are used together. A bash guide is a plate made from polycarbonate materials. It helps to prevent logs and rocks and other things that may cause damage to the chain rings.


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A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF HELICAL CUT GEARS

The impact of a helical cut gear on the performance and engineering of a car cannot be undermined. Since the advent of helical cut gears, the performance of most cars and automobiles has become more quiet and refined. Although, they are very important and useful, a lot of people do not know what a helical cut gear is. If you belong to that group, do not break a sweat, we will break it down in this article.

The strength of a helical cut gear supersedes that of a straight cut gear because of the helical design and a larger surface area. There is an even spread of load between the teeth of a helical cut gear because at a particular time, a large part of the teeth are in contact. The number of gears in contact at a particular time and the contact rate is determined by the angle of the helix.

Although helical gears are strong and durable, they are not used in race cars because of their weight. This gear requires a robust casing because of the axial load it generates. Without this robust casing, the shaft will easily punch through. Therefore, it is not used in racing cars because nobody desires more weight in such an automobile.

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A COMPARISON OF HELICAL AND SPUR GEARS

Spur gears and helical gears are very popular. Although they are often used interchangeably, they are not exactly the same. There are a few differences between them and we will be looking at a few of those differences in this article.

Spur gears are not only common, they are very simple. Their straight teeth are parallel to the gear’s axis. The design of a spur gear is simple and easy to do. Spur gears are not difficult to manufacture. They are also very economical. However, their operation is not particularly smooth or quiet. Their efficiency is impressive though and they generate so much power too. Spur gears perform better at low speed to moderate speed. On the flip side the noise and vibration level increases as speed increases.

Conversely, the teeth of a helical gear are inclined at an angle to the axis of the gear. The engagement of the teeth is gradual and this facilitates a smooth and quiet operation when compared to spur gears. The tooth of a helical gear is stronger than a spear gear. Therefore, they are able to carry more loads. Helical gears are also able to facilitate power transmission between parallel and non-parallel shafts. A spur gear does not have this ability, it only has the ability to transmit power between parallel shafts. On the flip side, helical gears generate axial thrust and you must account for this.


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